Therapeutic Use of MicroRNAs to Prevent and Control Allergic Rhinosinusitis
Inflammatory upper airway diseases, particularly chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and allergic rhinitis (AR), have a high worldwide prevalence. CRS and AR involve sustained and exaggerated inflammation that is associated with marked changes in gene and protein expression under tight regulation. miRNAs represent one of the fundamental epigenetic regulatory mechanisms used by cells that can mediate posttranscriptional gene silencing of target genes. As fine-tuning regulators of gene expression, miRNAs are involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, organ development, metabolism, stress responses, and signal transduction. Emerging evidence implicates an involvement of miRNAs in shaping the inflammation pattern in upper airways. Studies regarding the roles of miRNAs in allergic diseases have multiplied during the last 4 years, and the functions of miRNAs in the regulation and pathogenesis of these diseases are better and better characterized. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to be detectable in cell-free body fluids such as serum and plasma samples. The circulating miRNAs are protected from blood RNAs either by existing in cell membrane-derived vesicles such as exosomes or by forming a complex with lipid-protein carriers such as high-density lipoprotein. So it becomes possible to use such kind of molecules for a therapeutic purpose, and this is achieved by the Bio Immun(G)en Medicine – BI(G)MED – by introducing high diluted microRNAs in nanocompounds looking for a fine regulation in different upper airways diseases with an allergic aetiology.