Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide and particularly reaches its highest prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries. In Côte d’Ivoire, the SCD prevalence rate is 12%. Many evidences show that the immune system plays an important role in this inflammatory condition with secreting inflammatory cytokines.
This work attempts to identify the cytokine pattern displayed by Ivorian patients during the course of disease, as Th1 cytokines, as well as Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, this study desires to contribute to identify advantages of chronic transfusion in SCD patients.
Patients and Methods: 49 subjects (4 to 55 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study after an informed consent. The patients were assigned in 2 groups, patients in steady state and patients in crisis. Serums were measured in San Diego Biolegend laboratory by using LEGENDplexTM Human Inflammation Panel assays and ELISA.
Results: Evaluation of serum cytokines in SCD crisis patients revealed an increased level for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines. The IFN-γ to IL-4 ratio was 1.92 in crisis subjects and 3. 55 in steady state subjects indicating a trend toward a Th2 bias in crisis patients.
Conclusion: The role of cytokines in role in pathogenesis and progression in SCD is well established. However, accurate data are lacking for people with SCD in Sub-Saharan Africa where the disease is endemic. This study reveals a Th2 bias in SCD patients. The reduction in cytokine levels observed in our transfused patients provides an overview of the definite benefit of chronic transfusion.